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WHAT IS OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT?
June

9

2017

WHAT IS OBESITY AND OVERWEIGHT?

The word "Obesity "is derived from Greek words "Ab" meaning excess and "edere" overeating. It is condition in which there is as imbalance between the eating of food and consumption of the food, resulting in increase in weight. Strictly saying obesity is a state in which excess fat accumulates and deposits itself in various part of the body, thus increasing its weight.

"OBESITY”
Generalized weight excess due to accumulation of fat beyond 10 to 20 percent of normal range for the particular age, sex and height. It is generally due to excess food intake, often because of psychogenic factors, really to endocrine disturbance and here do familial facts.
TYPES OF OBESITY: In short physical state in which excessive fat is stored at various sites in the body.
BUFFALO OBESITY: The type of obesity usually seen in Cushing syndrome, confined chiefly to the trunk, face and neck also called adreno cortical obesity.
ENDOCRINE OBESITY: That due to dysfunction of the endocrine glands.
HYPOTHALAMIC Obesity: The resulting from disturbance of function of appetite regulating centers of Hypothalamus.
INCIDENCE AND ETIOLOGY: Ordinary obesity is quite common, especially in middle life, extreme obesity or localized accumulation of body fat the less common and suggest unusual etiologic facts. Although heredity may play a contributory role, three is only one immediate cause of obesity a caloric intake persistently exceeding caloric output. Since the capacity of the body to stored protein and carbohydrate is strictly limited, excess food in any form is converted in to, and stored as a fat. Obesity often is divided in to exogenous and endogenous types.Actually, obesity par- takes dual factors in both exogenous (due to excessive food, absolute or relative) and endogenous (since the caloric imbalance results from a disturbed mechanism, psychological or physiologic) thus even if simple habits of overeating or lack of exercise appear to be the only overt cause. One should search carefully for some abnormal state physical, mental or both that may underline these observations.

PHYSIOLOGIC FACTORS

Digestion and absorption are not more efficient in obese persons, neither is lipophilia (extraordinary ability of the body to retain fat) demonstrable .Local factors may be of importance when the adiposity has a character distribution, e.g. in lipomatosis, lipodystrophy,

Cushing's syndrome:
Endocrine do not primarily cause obesity, but they may favor its development by encouraging either on increase food intake or decreased energy output. Hypothalamic lesion may produce obesity by disturbing normal perception of satiety. Pituitary disease does not predispose to adiposity unless the hypothalamus also is functionally or organically injured. Severe hypopituitrarism does not cause obesity. Hyperinsulinism of functional hypoglycemia may cause excess hunger, high food intake and resultant obesity. Cushing’s syndrome and hyperadren corticism are characterized by obesity.
Limitation of energy output from any cause favors the development of obesity. Factors that may be incriminated include laziness due to psychologic influence or organic disease and enforced inactity during illness or recuperation.

PSYCHOLOGIC FACTORS: Habit, improper childhood training nervous tensions, frustrations, dissatisfactions all may be expressed in increased intake or decreased physical cavity. Pleasure in eating may become a dominant personality trait and serve as a substitute when social, business, or sexual desires are unsatisfied. Obesity may be used as a weapon against undesired. Contacts or activities to justify and withdrawal from normal pursuits. It may serve as guard against frustrations caused by the lack or loss of physical attractiveness and efficiency. Thus, obesity may result from defensive or offensive nemosis, and a vicious cycle is opting to be established. "Problem children "often become obese and use the condition to demand special attention. Although bothPhysiologic and psychologic abnormalities may be present, in the majority of cases the latter factor is more important.

SYMTOMS AND SIGNS

Most obese individual are symptomatic except for emotional problem.
In advanced causes, fatigue and dyspnea and aching of legs, back, knees and feet may be noted. Skin maceration and infection may occur beneath roll of fat. Signs of Hypertension, Heart failure, respiratory failure Arthritis, Diabetes and other condition to which obesity predisposes may develop later.
PATHOLOGY. There is excessive fat in normal sites and an accumulation of fat in abnormal places, such as retroperitoneal tissues, omentum mesentry, perirenal tissues, mediastinum and pericardium. Fatty infiltration may occur in the pancreas and in skeletal and heart muscle. The liver may enlarged, many Hepatic Cells containing large fat vacuoles.
PROGNOSIS: If present for many months or years, overweight is associated with an increased mortality rate and decreased life expectancy. At age 45 to 50 persons 10 pounds overweight, there is an elevation of 8% above the average death rate; 20 pounds, 18% 30lb,18% 50lb,56%.The overweigh succumb to cardiovascular renal disease about 60% more frequently than persons of normal weight .Corpulence likewise result in higher death rates, from Diabetes Nephritis, Pnesmonia, Cirrhosis, biliary diseases, Appendicitis and postoperative complications.
Even death from accidents is considerably more common among the obese.
Longstanding adiposity predisposes to Diabetes, Hypertension, myocardial failure, degenerative arthritis of the back and knees, orthopedic disorders, postoperative thromboembolism, venous varicosities and leg ulcers. The like hood of complications accompanying pregnancy, child bearing and operative procedures is enhanced. Menstrual disorders may occur, although sometimes they are secondary to the same endocrinologic or psychologic factors that cause the obesity. Commonly obesity is due to overeating (Eating habits. The habit of continuously nibbling increase. The intake considerably, and so the resultant caloric intake increases, Snacks, Biscuits, Cakes, groundnuts, fruit chocolates, Toffees with faulty habits of eating .A house wife with working in kitchen become obese due to constant cooking and eating than woman working in an office) intake of Beverages, intake of Alcohol, frequency of Meals and sedentary habits. Heredity and Familial tendency :-obesity runs in families.
Disturbances of the hormonal balance of the body may cause obesity and disease states mentioned above.
MANAGEMENT OF OBESITY: The first and most important point of management of obesity is the willingness and strong determination and motivation on the part of the individual to reduce the body weight. All the instructions must be pursued devout zeal. An expenditure of 3500 calories will result in loss of one pound of weight will be lost per week .Similarly if 1000 extra calories are expanded per day,
Then it will be possible to lose 21 Lbs or one kilogram of weight. So it is clear that weight loss is slow process. Every fat individual has own theories as to the cause and treatment of his obesity and he sincerely believes that some mechanism other his high calorie diet has caused obesity. "I eat very little but still, I am getting obese, he says. Similarly for treatment he tries everything else but a caloric diet. There are three main factors to be considered for the

Management of obesity

I. The first to correct any obvious underlying cause. When there are obvious endocrine or metabolic disturbances the main line of treatment must be to correct them .Here the advice of the psychological disturbances, then they have also to be treated accordingly .In a vast majority of cases, the psychological disturbances are mild and do not require any psychiatric treatment.
II. Secondly, one must restrict the daily caloric intake below the daily caloric requirements. This will be discussed later in dietic management.
III. Finally, the general activity of the body must be maintained by exercise and other measures. Regular exercise is much more valuable then spurts of activity at weak ends. For exclusive of basal metabolism and influence of = Do light exercise daily, such as, Bicycling (fast speed) Boxing, Carpentry, Dancing (slow) Dishwashing ,Dressing and undressing, Driving an automobile ,Horseback riding(slow) Ironing, Laundry(light),Painting furniture, Playing Ping Pong and Piano, Reading around, Rowing in a race, Running, Sawing wood, Sewing ( machine) Sitting quietly, Standing at attention, Shaking, Sweeping the floor, Swimming, Tailoring, Typewriting (rapidly) Violin playing, Walking (3m.p.h) Walking up and down stairs, Washing floor and writing.
Massage is passive activity for the obese patient, steam bath have been popular means of reducing weight.

DIETETIC MANAGEMENT: Planning of reducing diets:-
i. Lower caloric contents
ii. Adequate proteins
iii. Fairly low Carbohydrates and Fats,
iv. Plenty of minerals and vitamin, v. Good satiety value.
The Gradation of the degree of obesity and recommended intake of calories is as under:
Categories of obesity and recommended intake of calories.
VERY OBESE
20% or more above the normal weight MODERATELY OBESE
15% to 20% above the normal weight MILDLY OBESE
10% to 15% above the normal weight
ADULTS 900 calories
Children 1000 = = =
(6 - 8 years)
(8 - 12 years) 1200 = = = 200 calories
1200
1500 1500 to 1800 calories
1500 = = =
1800 = = =
An active obese juvenile and an obese pregnant woman each require 2000 Calories.
Recommended Reducing Diet
(Non Vegetarian - 900 Calories)
Diet Quantity Approximately House Hold Measures
Early Morning
lime juice or tea without
sugar
breakfast skimmed milk
Bread
Eggs 50 ml


150 ml
25 gm
one 1 Cup


1 Cup

1 Slice
Mid Morning
Skimmed Milk
or
Fruit Juice
150 ml
150 ml

1 Cup
1 Cup
Lunch
Green Vegetables
Whole wheat Flour
or
Rice
Lenitils (Dal)
Skimmed Curd
Ghee or Oil

25 gm
15 gm
100 gm
5 gm (Portion)
5 gm


1 small chapatti

1 - Teacup Cooked
1 – Teacup
Evening
Skimmed milk, tea or
Coffee without Sugar

150 ml

1 - Cup


(Vegetarian - 900 Calories)
Diet Quantity Approximately House Hold Measures
Early Morning
lime juice or tea without sugar
breakfast skimmed milk
Bread

225 ml
25gm

1 Glass
1 Slice
Mid Morning
Skimmed Milk
Fruit Juice
150 ml
150 ml
1- Cup
Lunch
Whole wheat Flour
or Rice
Lenitils (Dal)
Skim Milk Curd
Green Vegetables
Ghee or Oil
Fruit

25 gm
15 gm
100 gm
A good helping
5 gm
1 Portion


1-Chapati


1 Teaspoonful
Evening
Skimmed milk, tea or
Coffee without Sugar

150 ml

1 – Cup
Dinner
Whole wheat flour
or rice
Cheese of Skimmed Milk
Skimmed Milk Curd
Green Vegetables
Ghee or Oil
Fruit

250 gm
50 gm
100 gm
A good helping
5 gm
1 Portion

1- Chapatti

1- Tea Cup

1 Tea spoonful
Before Bed
Skimmed Milk
150 ml
1 - Cup

You can adjust diet for, very obese, Moderate, Mild obese (1200, 1500, 1800, 2000 Calories) accordingly for vegetarians and non vegetarians.
FOOD ALLOWED FREELY IN REDUCING DIET:
An obese person can have freely the following foods in addition to the diet prescribed:-
1. Green Vegetables (leafy)
2. Tomatoes, Cucumber, Radish and Carrots.
3. Lime juice without sugar.
4. Clear soups.
5. Tea and Coffee without sugar.
6. Tamarind water, pepper, cumin seeds. (Zeera)
7. Fat free butter Milk.
8. Chutneys
9. Saccharine and other sweeting agents of not bad quality.
10. Flavoring agents and spices.
FOODS PROHIBITED IN REDUCING DIETS:
1. All sweets, including sugar, Jiggery and honey.
2. All fats, butter, ghee, cream, fried foods.
3. All dried fruits, nuts, dates, preserved fruits.
4. Bananas, Mangoes, Grapes, Potatoes, Arvi, Sweet Potatoes, Beetroots, and Yam (zimikand)
5. Alcoholic drinks except soda.
6. Ovaltine, Horlicks, Cocco etc.
FOODS TO BE TAKEN IN PRESCRIBED:
1. All cereals.
2. Meat and poultry.
3. Pulses.
4. Milk and milk products.
FRUIT PORTION: - One portion fruit consist of any one of the following fruits
1. Apple 100gms Litchi 100gms
2. Pomegranate 100gms
3. Guava 100gms Banana 50gms
4. Green Mango 100gms Grapes 50gms
5. Yellow Melon 150gms Water Melon 250gms
6. Orange or Musami 100gms Plums 100gms
7. Papaya 100gms Pear 100gms
8. Peaches 100gms
HANDY MEASURES APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES:
1. Milk 1 cup 5 Ozs 150 ml
2. Milk 1 glass 8 Ozs 225 ml
3. Bread 1 slice 1 Oz 25 gms
4. Chapatti 1 small 1 Oz 25 gms 85 gms cooked
5. Rice ½ cup cooked 3 Ozs
6. Lentils (Dal) ½ table spoon ½ Oz 15 gms
7. Whole wheat Flour 1-small tea cup 4 Oz 115 gms
8. Whole wheat Flour 2-level tablespoon full flour 28 gms
"As partine "can be used as a sweeting Agents, because it is 180 times sweeter than sugar
(Sucrose).It has been in use since 1974 and there have been no reports of adverse effect in its
long term use. Other sweetener like "Saccharine" known to be harmful (now proved).
ADDITIONAL TIPS ON REDUCING WEIGHT:
1. The Doctors or Dietician must be consulted before starting on a reducing diet.
2. Before starting, the desirable ideal weight must be determined and the diet plan must strictly followed according to the degree of obesity.
3. The diet must be nutritionally adequate.
4. Enough calories must be consumed to permit physical activity.
5. At least 300 calories at each of these or four meals without snacks in between the meals would be ideal diet
6. Reasonably sized portions without second servings are advisable.
7. Green, Yellow, Red vegetables are preferred to starchy one.
8. Plain Fruit must be taken rather than pastries or sweets or desserts.
9. Sugar substitutes & sugar free soft drinks can be taken but try avoiding.
10. Meals must be eaten at about the same hours each day (daily) to allow consistent intervals between meals.
11. It is not advisable to starve. The free foods mentioned in diet plan may be eaten.
12. Drinking plenty of water is good for the body has no calories.
13. Little or no alcoholic beverages must be taken one bottle of bear carries about 350 calories.
14. Moderate exercise rather than strenuous is ferred. Over exercise may be very tiring & also may increase the weight.
15. Gradual weight loss is better than rapid loss of weight, which usually results in re- gaining of weight after sometime.
16. After the ideal weight has been reached, just enough food must be eaten to maintain it.
17. The body weight must be taken regularly once a week & recorded on a chart. The same scale must be used every time, while wearing the same cloths.

As you know, obesity is spreading like a fatal disease the only thing that can be helpful is to follow up the advise "prevention is better than cure" our people think that each disease to take bundle of medicines the non quality control like bath room manufactures exploit this thinking and
Producing so many counter sales, colorful syrups and other combinations products The wordings written on these products are so costly I cannot against in using irritative medicines, but care should be taken while using them and take decision under the light of this article.
The tips are to control your diet according to the daily requirements of calories. Avoid over eating and sleep.
There are many Homoeopathic remedies to reduce weight, I am going to describe about those remedies, which has given good results such as: - (these remedies are using in my clinical
Practice for the last more than 30 years and found good results).
GRAPHITES: - I have seen good result, tendency to obesity particularly in females with delayed menstruation.
THYROIDNUM 3x: - It gives good result, obesity due to disturbance of Hormones and endocrine system.
CALCARIA CARB: - A conditional remedy for reducing fat, with symptom of sweating on the forehead.
AURUM MET: - For those obese persons, suffering fatty degeneration of Heart.
AMONIUM MUR: - For those, body fat legs with large buttocks.
FUCUS VESICULSUS: - Very useful remedy for flabby obese persons, good results seen, while using in form of Mother Tinctures.
CALCAREA FLUORICA: - I have tried in Biochemical form and very good result has been observed. In spite of the above mentioned remedies, there are many remedies given below can be used for obese persons, Antimoniun crudum, Kali carbenicum, Lodum, Spongia, Muraticum
Acidum, Magnisium, Murchcum and Phytolacca berry Q.
Lastly I would like to express my clinical experience views about Phytolacca Berry, Hyper usage or misuse of Phytolacca for the long term therapy producers’ multi pain in large joints instead of reducing weight. So avoid excess use of Phytolacca or continuous usage (constant). There is absolutely no short cut in Homoeopathy for obesity, but my suggestion to treat the obese person must examine properly with main constitution of the person. So I hope every person who will read my article will be able to reduce the weight surely and will make smart.
REFERENCE FROM: - Dr.A.K.SHARMA M.D
The Merck Manual Personal Experience (Clinical & Practical)

Quotable Quotations

Quotable Quotations
Time and health are two precious assets that we don't recognize and appreciate until they have been depleted.
Exercise is one of the best ways in preventing the rapid growth of obesity.
Childhood obesity is best tackled at home through improved parental involvement, increased physical exercise, better diet and restraint from eating.
It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver.
Health is the greatest gift, contentment the greatest wealth, faithfulness the best relationship

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